Context: Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFSC) has mesenchymal origin and is multipotent. Having played their role in the detection of genetic abnormalities in the unborn children, they are gaining attention in the regenerative medicine because of their pluripotency.

Evidence Acquisition: AFSCs possess great proliferating ability and have no ethical and religious issues in their use. AFSCs may also be studied for the stem cells differentiation such as production of multiple lineages of different cells like heart, liver, pancreas, etc. The potential of their use in regenerative medicine as well as their differentiation into multiple cells is possible.

Results: AFSCs have the potential to be used in tissue repair and regeneration of bladder and kidney injuries, for the treatment of
congenital anomalies like tracheal anomalies and spina bifida therapy etc. However, like every therapeutic potential, AFSCs also have some limitations such as low rate of differentiation of transplanted AFSCs and immune rejection.

Conclusions: AFSCs have great therapeutic potential, but extensive research is warranted to overcome the limitations to use AFSC as therapy.